Gum color differs from individual to individual. A medical condition, smoking, or other factors in lifestyle can provoke black gums and other changes in gum color.
The gums are rough tissues covering and holding in place the teeth. They can range from red or pink to darker color like brown or black.

Good oral health is essential for well-being as a whole. Changes in gum color may signify an underlying health issue, so a person should talk to a doctor about the cause.

What Causes Black Gums?

There is a huge number of reasons that can cause black gums, including:

Melanin

The body produces melanin naturally, a substance that gives its color to the skin, hair, and eyes. A person with more melanin in the body may have dark brown or black gums. If the gums of a person are always very black, there is no reason to worry. However, if the gum color varies over a short period of time, or if black patches appear on the gums, melanin may not cause it and may suggest a medical problem.

Smoking

Smoking can cause gums to become discolored. This is known as the melanosis of smokers. Melanin is created by specialized cells in the body called melanocytes. Tobacco nicotine can cause more melanocytes than normal to produce melanin. Research has identified a link between quitting smoking and decreasing gum discoloration. It means that darker color patches may be reversible on the gums caused by smoking.

Medication

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Minocycline is used for the prevention of acne and certain diseases, including chlamydia. Pigmentation or discoloration, which can sometimes occur in the mouth, is an unusual side effect of minocycline. As alternative drugs may be available, a person should talk to their doctor about any discolorations caused by medications.

Amalgam Tattoo

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A tattoo of amalgam may appear in the mouth, but usually appears next to a filling. It looks like a patch inside the mouth, black, gray, or blue. Amalgam is a mixture of metals used to make crowns and fillings. If this material's particles are dislodged, it may appear under the gum's skin. Treatment for amalgam tattoos is not usually required, as they pose no health risks.

Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome

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The syndrome of Peutz-Jeghers is a genetic condition that may increase the risk of polyps or cancer. The appearance of dark blue or dark brown freckles is one of the early symptoms, which potentially found both in the mouth and on the finger or toe skin. If an individual has Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, a genetic test will indicate.

Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

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Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is an inflammation of the skin, also known as the mouth of the trench. It causes fever, gums that are painful, and breath that smells bad. When a layer of dead tissue builds up over the gums, an infection may cause black or gray gums.

Rapid growth of bacteria in the mouth, usually due to gingivitis, results in trench mouth. Due to poor oral hygiene, stress, lack of sleep, or unhealthy diet, bacteria may develop. Early trench mouth symptoms include bleeding gums, bad breath, lots of mouth saliva, and feeling sick. Ulcers at the edge of the teeth can develop on the gums. It's easy to handle. A dentist can prescribe antibiotics and cleanse the mouth.

Addison's Disease

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The disease of Addison affects the adrenal glands that make up a variety of hormones. The disorder prevents the production of enough hormones by these glands. Early symptoms include: tiredness, feeling more thirsty than normal, unexplained weight loss, losing appetite, weakened muscles. Hyperpigmentation is the medical term for this.

If left untreated, the disease of Addison can cause severe complications. It can cause an adrenal crisis if the hormone levels fall too far. Severe dehydration, quick and rapid breathing, drowsiness, and dark, clammy skin are signs of an adrenal crisis. A medical emergency is an adrenal attack.